Institute of Computer Science

The Czech Academy of Sciences

The Czech Academy of Sciences

"The question of whether Machines Can Think... is about as relevant as the question of whether Submarines Can Swim." - E. W. Dijkstra

(grants in alphabetical order)

Artificial Intelligence reached maturity in many of its subareas and the most recent trend is re-integration of developed techniques to tackle hard real-life problems such as driverless cars, deep-space and ocean explorers, drones etc. The project deals with developing autonomousagents (robots) that can build and refine their internal models and do their own decisions. The focus is on internal knowledge model of autonomous agents that is appropriate for planning their behavior and that can be obtained and refined in a (semi-) automated way rather than being manually encoded. The model will be a core part of a modular architecture and it will be developed by integrating research results from areas of robotics, planning, uncertainty reasoning, knowledge representation, nature-inspired computation, and linguistics. In addition totheoretical formal results (models, algorithms), the important output will be verification of the developed techniques on real robots. The aim is to bridge different research areas and bring their results closer to practical applicability.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

Center of Excellence - Institute for Theoretical Computer Science (CE-ITI) is a research center for theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. CE-ITI aims at becoming an international leader recognized world-wide, and also a driving force of Czech theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. To achieve that, CE-ITI includes best professors, young researchers, and students from several top institutes in the Czech Republic, and integrates the following key activities: 1) conducting research of highest quality, addressing major challenges and open problems, and initiating new lines of research. 2) Educating a new generation of researchers and active searching for new talents. 3) Coordinating and fostering international cooperation, strengthening the standing of Czech computer science and mathematics in world-wide context.

01. 01. 2012 - 31. 12. 2018

Project aims to describe the current status of admission process to Czech colleges and universities and to prepare a methodology for development of standardized admission tests. Project covers the whole cycle of test development – from defining objectives, blueprinting, item writing, reviewing and pretesting, to assembling the test and its validation. Special attention is given to psychometric tools needed for student scoring, item calibration, detection of improper items, estimation of reliability and validity in complex design and student scoring and item selection in automatized adaptive testing. Theoretical results are implemented and demonstrated on real data from admission test to a medical school.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

Abstrakt anglicky Graphs are among the simplest mathematical structures. They form the foundation for much of Computer Science and their importance has grown enormously with the development of computernetworks. Extremal graph theory focuses on interactions between different properties of graphs. In thisproject we link extremal graph theory to several other fields, including probability theory, analysis andgeometry. We exploit novel techniques that were developed for embedding problems in sparse graphsand those that arose from the theory of dense graph limits. The aim of the project is to develop generaltools that relate to the Szemerédi Regularity lemma, the Stability method, extremal problems ingraphons, and applications of the Chatterjee-Varadhan approach to large deviations of Erdős-Rényirandom graphs. Among our main goals are the resolution of the Loebl-Komlós-Sós conjecture,applications of extremal graph theory in geometric combinatorics, or work on the "infamous upper tailproblem" for subgraph counts in random graphs.

01. 01. 2016 - 31. 12. 2018

The project deals with iterative methods for several important problems of numerical linear algebra. It includes their analysis,preconditioning, solving ill-posed problems as well as real-world applications. We focus on Krylov subspace methods, openquestions related to their convergence, associated matrix approximation problems, error estimation and stopping criteria. Wewill study various preconditioning techniques including new algorithms based on incomplete factorizations andorthogonalization schemes, and block saddle-point preconditioning. We intend to analyze regularization methods for solvingill-posed problems in image and signal processing, open problems in total least squares and Golub-Kahan bidiagonalization. Aninseparable part of our work are broad international collaboration and selected real-world applications such as theapproximation of scattering amplitude and nuclear magnetic resonance.

01. 02. 2013 - 31. 01. 2018

01. 01. 2017 - 31. 12. 2019

The project will contribute to development of theoretical foundations of neurocomputing. The goal of the research is to obtain new knowledge in terms of mathematical results describing capabilities and limitations of multilayer networks. Relationships between networks with varioustypes of computational units (perceptrons, radial, and kernel), various parameters of these units will be described. Estimates of model complexities of networks will be derived in dependence on input dimensions, types of units and network architectures. Properties of highdimensional tasks which can be represented or approximated by networks of reasonable sizes will be characterized. Optimal solutions of learning tasks from point of view of generalization and model complexity will be analyzed.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

Vague quantifiers like `many', `few', or `about a half' present a major problem in natural language processing. Designing a satisfactory theory of vague quantifiers requires to construct formal models and evaluate them with regard to linguistic adequateness, automated deduction, and embeddability in logical frameworks. This constitutes a serious research challenge involving computer science, logic, linguistics, and analytic philosophy. The fuzzy logic paradigm, based on the notion of degrees of truth, provides a mathematical apparatus for dealing with several aspects of vagueness. The applications of fuzzy methods to vague quantifiers have so far largely neglected the potential of deductive systems studied by mathematical fuzzy logic. The aim of the project is to deepen and extend the mathematical foundations for adequate modeling of vague quantifiers by employing formalisms and results of mathematical fuzzy logic, including modal logics with two-level syntax, game-theoretic semantics, and automated reasoning techniques.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

01. 01. 2017 - 31. 12. 2019

RI serves for Czech contribution to particle physics research on experiments at Fermilab. It consists of experiments on which Czech physicists collaborate in Fermilab and of infrastructures of the Czech collaborating institutions.Members of RI work on the Fermilab's experiments NOvA, D0 and plan to join a new experiment in two years to contribute to its design and construction. In the Czech Republic it is a RCCPP computing farm and physics laboratory in FZU, cluster for artificial intelligence and neural networks algorithms in ICS and numerical and statistical computing servers at CTU. The whole infrastructure serves for particle physics experiments and for researchers for many years. The RI as top world research environment serves also for education of undergraduate and postgraduate students.

01. 01. 2016 - 31. 12. 2019

One of the most important objects used in the field of formal verification are invariants. An invariant is a set of states of a given system such that the system will always stay in this set of states. Recently, there has been a lot of progress on the constraint-based computation of invariants, that reduces invariant computation to a constraint solving problem in a decidable theory. However, this approach cannot be applied in cases where the corresponding logical theory is not decidable, or where the available constraint solvers are not efficient enough to solve problems of interesting size. The proposal concerns computation of invariants of hybrid dynamical systems, that is, dynamical systems thathave partially discrete, partially continuous states and behavior. In order to circumvent the mentioned problems of undecidability and efficiency limitations of constraint solvers, we use a radically different approach that exploits robustness and simulations.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

Spolupráce na excelentních projektech ve Fermiho národní laboratoři (Fermilab), Batavia, USA. Fermilab je špičková americká laboratoř pro fyziku částic. Aktuálně spolupracujeme na končícím experimentu D0, který zkoumá srážky protonů s antiprotony. Experiment poslední dvě dekády prezentovat významné výsledky na mezinárodních konferencích a čeští spolupracovníci jsou spoluautoři několika set vědeckých publikací. Dále spolupracujeme na běžícím experimentu NOvA, tzv. "long base line" neutrinovém experimentu, který měří základní parametry oscilací neutrin pomocí dvou 800km od sebe vzdálených detektorů. Připravujeme se na spolupráci na další generaci experimentů ve Fermilab.

01. 10. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

Ductile or brittle behavior of cracks is one of the key phenomena which may have a crucial influence on static and dynamic strength of mechanical structures utilizing bcc iron based materials, e.g. ferritic steels. Continuum predictions on ductile/brittle behavior of a central crack under biaxial tension show that the change of called T-stress can change ductile crack behavior to brittle crack extension. We utilize 3D atomistic molecular dynamic (MD) simulations in bcc iron at various temperatures to verify predictions on ductile-brittle transition caused by T-stress. It will be done for central cracked specimens under biaxial tension and as well for edge cracked samples under uniaxial tension, available for experiments. The topic is important for reactor pressure vessels and interpretation of fracture experiments. Another important aim is interconnecting with first-principles calculations for model clusters of restricted size, pointed at cohesive energy, tension and shear strength, atomic configurations and forces at defects,determining interatomistic potential parameters for MD.

01. 01. 2017 - 31. 12. 2019

Substructural logics are formal reasoning systems that refine classical logic by weakening the structural rules in Gentzen sequent calculus. While classical logic formalises the notion of bivalent truth, substructural logics allow to handle notions such as resources, partial truth, meaning, and natural language syntax, motivated by studies in computer science, epistemology, economy, and linguistics.Traditionally, substructural logics have been investigated following three main approaches: proof theoretic, algebraic and abstract-algebraic. Although some connections among these approaches were observed long ago, in large part these practices developed in independence. The main objective of this project is to establish a network of leading experts from these three areas, with the aim of reuniting these traditions and their communities and obtain new deep results.

01. 03. 2016 - 28. 02. 2019

The subject of the project is an investigation of the variety of lattice-ordered monoids with a special focus on the subclass of totally ordered ones. As the known methods investigate this problem seem to become exhausted, the project intends to take a benefit of newly introducedmethods of geometric nature to attack this task, whose nature is algebraic, in a new way. The new tools include the approach of web geometry, a branch of the differential geometry introduced by Blaschke and Bol, and the representation by Cayley monoids; both these approaches allow to display algebraic properties of structures in an appealing visual way.

01. 01. 2015 - 31. 12. 2017

01. 01. 2017 - 31. 12. 2017

(end year - alphabetical order)

- Advanced random field methods in data assimilation for short-term weather prediction
- An Order-Based Approach to Non-Classical Propositional and Predicate Logics

- Constructing Advanced Comprehensible Classifiers
- Klimatické sítě: Rozmanitost měřítek dynamiky a interakcí v atmosféře Země
- Large-scale dynamics and critical transitions in neuronal networks and their role in limbic seizure genesis
- Modeling of Complex Systems by Soft-Computing Methods
- Personality and spntaneous brain activity during rest and movie watching: relation and structural determinants

- Algebraic Methods in Proof Theory
- Distribution and metric properties of number sequences and their applications
- Nanostructures with transition metals: Towards ab-initio material design

- A Multivalued Approach to Optima and Equilibria in Economics
- Game - theoretical approach to many - valued logics
- Geometry of associative structures
- Integrated Verification and Falsification of Hybrid Systems of Industrial Size
- Mathematical Fuzzy Logic in Computer Science
- NoSCoM: Non-Standard Computational Models and Their Applications in Complexity, Linguistics, and Learning
- 100 vědců do středních škol

- Application of artificial neural networks in systems for person
- Interactions, information transfer and complex structures in the dynamics of changing climate
- Learning of functional relationships from high-dimensional data
- Number theory and its applications

- Applications of Methods of Knowledge Engineering in Data Mining
- Decompositions of matrices with binary and ordinal data: theory, algorithms, and complexity
- Efficient Handling Non-linear Numerical Constraints Arising in Automated Reasoning about Rich Models of Computer Systems
- Greenhouse gases emission reduction using information technologies
- Interoperability of Future Web Services in the Web of Linked Data
- Logical Foundations of Semantics
- Logic-based fuzzy mathematics
- Model-Driven Evaluation of Design Desicion Impacts in Software Engineering
- Preconditioning and iterative solution of saddle-point problems
- Res Informatica
- Social Network of IT Specialists in Regions of Czech Republic
- Theory of Krylov subspace methods and its relationship to other mathematical disciplines
- Towards deeper understanding of Krylov subspace methods
- Web Semantization

- Analysis of negative impacts on driver attention
- BrainSync - Large Scale Interactions in Brain Networks and Their Breakdown in Brain Diseases
- Development of Methods for Solving Large Scale Nonlinear Programming and Nonsmooth Optimization Problems
- Extraterrestrial effects on atmospheric circulation in mid and high latitudes
- Logical Models of Reasoning with Vague Information
- Methods of Artificial Inteligence in GIS
- Úloha folátů v etiopathogenesi metabolického syndromu
- Universe of informatics

- Complexity of perceptron and dernel networks
- Decentralized control and communication
- Dynamic Formal Systems
- Intelligent Middle Agents for Mediation of Semantic Web Services
- Model complexity of large fuzzy rule-based systems and neural networks
- Neural Networks Learning Algorithms Based on Regularization Theory
- Verification of Hybrid Systems - Exploiting the Synergy with Underlying Constraint Solving Technology

- Advanced Remedial Technologies and Processes
- Algebraic, analytic and combinatorial number theory
- Centre of Biomedical Informatics
- Complexity of t-norm based logics - algebraic and proof-theroetical approach
- Dynamics of system aliances
- Institute for Theoretical Computer Science
- Interactive Information Portal for Algorithmic Mathematic
- Mathematical Foundation of Inference and Decision under Uncertainty
- Mathematical Modelling of Natural Gas Consumption for Small and Middle Clients
- Methods for Intelligent Systems and Their Applications in Datamining and Natural Language
- Realistic Application of Formal Methods in Component Systems
- Solution of large, sparse and nonsymmetric linear systems with Krylov subspace methods.

- A new approach to knowledge representation and exchange in concept and sensor networks
- Application of quantum informatics on PKI (Public Key Infrastructure)
- BRACCIA - Brain, Respiration and Cardiac Causalities in Anaesthesia
- Collegium Informaticum
- Development of numerical methods for solving large scale nonlinear programming problems
- Development of software system for solving large-scale problems of nonlinear and nonsmooth optimization
- Information technologies for development of continuous shared health care
- Intelligent methods for incresing of reliability of electrical networks
- Intelligent Models, Algorithms, Methods and Tools for the Semantic Web (realization)
- Mathematical modelling of air quality with applications in management of emergencies
- Modelling and simulation of complex technical problems: effective numerical algorithms and parallel implementation using new information technology
- Scientific-information gate for informatics and cybernetics.

- Approximation and Learning of Multivariable Functions by Neural Networks and Kernel Methods
- Complex investigation of biomechanical coditions of the artificial skeletal replacements applications, evaluatin of their failure reasons and proposal of conditions for increasing their stability in t
- Formal Concept Analysis of Indeterminate and Large Data: Theory, Methods and Applications
- Formal Theories of Mathematical Structures with Vagueness
- New Methods and Tools for Knowledge Discovery in Databases
- New Trends in Research and Application of Voice Technology

- Automated model building for fuzzy logic
- Methods of number theory
- New results in testing the goodness-of-fit based in Pearson-type statistics
- Quantification of cardiovascular interactions in health and disease

- Analysis of system aliances function reliability
- Autonomous computational agents
- Consortial Approach to the Development of Experimental Models
- COSTRetional Structures in Data Mining nad Discovery Science
- Krylov subspace methods - mathematical theory, stopping criteria and behaviour in finite precision arithmetic
- Special classes of matrices

- Air Quality Data Assimilation in Regional Chemistry Transport Models
- BARRANDE - E-Learning a E-Business: Auto-Adapting Web Sites via Neural Networks
- Center for Applied Cybernetics
- International cooperation in ATLAS Detector in CERN
- Mathematical foundations of inference under vagueness uncertainty
- Mathematical Theory of Iterative Processes with Applications
- Modeling the rainfall-runoff relationships by artificial intelligence methods
- Nonlinear Approximation with Variable Basis and Neural Networks
- Specialized Computational Models in Contemporary Computer Science
- Study of Dynamical Models of Pain During the Development
- Voice Technologies a Support of Information Society

- Algebraic, analytic and combinatorial methods of number theory
- General Asymptotic Theory of M-estimators
- Learning Algorithms for Local Unit Neural Networks
- Linear Optimization Problems with Inexact Data
- Research of Neural Networks Capability to Provide Nonlinear Boolean Factor Analysis
- Scalable Sparse Linear Algebraic Solvers: Analysis, Development, Implementation and Application

- Alternative learning procedures for feedforward neural networks
- Alternative mathematical models for uncertainty quantification and processing
- Analysis of reliability of large hybrid technical and biological systems
- NEUROINFORMATICS: Computational Theory of Neural Networks
- Parallelization of computer processing
- Polynomial and structured matrices
- Prediction of epileptic seizures: Extracting information with predictive power from scalp EEG by using nonlinear dynamical methods
- SOFA - Software Appliances
- SOFT COMPUTING: Theoretical Foundations and Experiments
- Toxic oxygen products and antioxidant eye protextion. Conditions leading to the exidative eye damage, its prevention or healing
- 2000 ADBIS-DASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems

- MGT - Medical Guideline Technology: representing, interpreting and sharing cost-effective standards
- Nonlinear approximation by neural networks
- Parameter spaces and learning complexity of neural networks
- Study of behaviour of neurons in normal states and in the pain by methods of chaodynamics - experimental and theoretical approach

- Computational Models and Complexity of Computation
- The structure and dynamics of relationship between the psychological profile and embodiment of students of medicine

- Analysis of Informational and Dynamical Capatibilities of Recurrent Neural Networks
- Extensions of linear-algebraic problems
- Inconsistency resolution methods in the integration of data and knowledge bases
- Preconditioned Iterative Methods for Linear Algebraic

- Application of Neural Nets for Triggering of Events in Elementary Particle Physics, principal investigator
- Approximation of functions and neural networks learning algorithms
- Complexity of Continuous Models of Neurocomputing
- Development of the psychological method of newborn behavior assessment
- Information Technologies Education and Training IT EDUCTA
- Mathematical foundations of inference under vagueness and uncertainty
- Mathematical modelling of the transport and the reactions of the chemical substances in the contaminated underground water
- Research in application of the object paradigm in distributed systems

- New methods of prediction and optimization for applications in electric power network of the Czech republic

- Analysis of Informational Capabilities of a Class of Artificial Neural Networks to Optimize their Structure
- Application of modern mathematical methods in economic information processing
- Design of Modular Artificial Neural Networks
- Information Retrieval from Textual Databases Bsed on AT and NN Methodology
- New Approaches to Neural Networks in Digital Signal Processing for Applications to System Identification and Modelling
- Numerical Methods for Linear Algebraic Systems with Application to Nonlinear Problems
- Structured matrices

- Approximation of functions and architectures of neural networks
- Construction of methods for data analysis in epidemiological studies, detection of risk factors and disease risk modelling
- Hadron interaction in TeV region and their fast triggering for the quark-physics
- Research of optimization methods and develop of an interactiove system for universal functional optimization

- Non-numerical uncerianty quantification and processing in computer-aided systems for conclution drawing and decision making
- Research of optimization methods and developmentof an interactive system for univerzal functional optimization
- The approximation capabilities of multilayer neural networks

- Convergence and stability of conjugate gradient type methods for solving linear systems and computing eigenvalues in finite precision arithmetic
- Model search techniques
- The analysis and applications of new neural networks architectures

- Mathematical foundations of inference in expert systems
- Neural Nets with Neurons of Limited Number of Synapses
- The Analysis of the Generalization Abilities of Layered Neural Networks Used for Signal Processing